A foreign branch office is an organized corporation that is registered in the Philippines under existing foreign laws. A branch office should carry out the business activities of its parent company, and is authorized to earn income from its operations inside and outside the Philippines. Its main purpose is to provide marketing, sales, or customer assistance to new and existing customers of its parent corporation. It may also be used to distribute products, disseminate information, or merely establish the presence of its parent company within the Philippines.

A Representative Office in the Philippines is a business structure that acts as a local liaison office for a foreign corporation that seeks to establish a corporate presence in the country without engaging in income-generating activities. 

Despite acquittal in a criminal case based on reasonable doubt, a taxpayer can be held civilly liable for a tax assessment when the prosecution proves its case in the civil action by a preponderance of evidence. Without a valid LOA, the assessment by the BIR is void.